It certainly is a good idea to periodically review with your doctor all the medications you take, to decide whether they are still necessary. It is very often the case that people are taking medications for unclear reasons, and the person who is prescribing it has been doing so without really thinking about whether the benefits still outweigh the risks, especially as people get older and may have acquired new conditions or had medication changes.

Proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole frequently are prescribed for short-term use but end up being continued for years. Except in people who absolutely need it — such as people with Barrett’s esophagus — I agree with a trial of stopping and using H2 blockers like famotidine on an as-needed basis. I recommend a taper, not a sudden stop.

Proton pump inhibitors are likely to increase the risk of infection, such as pneumonia — without acid in the stomach, bacteria are not killed as efficiently — and intestinal infections; may possibly increase the risk of osteoporosis; and probably reduce vitamin B-12 and iron absorption.

Although there have been reports of increased risk of kidney disease and dementia, I doubt the actual clinical risk is significant. Still, there are enough possible adverse effects that it is worth balancing the risks against the benefits of reducing symptoms.

I am glad you tried some nondrug therapies, as we doctors often do not emphasize how important they are. In addition to raising the head of the bed — bricks under the feet is traditional, but a foam wedge under the mattress is also effective — losing weight for those who would benefit, avoiding tobacco and alcohol, and not eating three hours before bedtime make drugs unnecessary for many. Some people benefit from eliminating certain foods, especially caffeine, chocolate and fatty or spicy foods.

I received literature in the mail about a new miracle cure for enlarged prostate. The ads state that the new pills shrink the prostate back to normal. Is there such a pill, or is this a scam? I am afraid it is pills filled with drywall dust.

I’m afraid it’s more likely to be a scam than real, but there are a few herbal therapies that have been shown to help — but not cure — enlarged prostate glands in men.

Saw palmetto is well-known, but most recently was found to be no better than placebo. Beta-sitosterol, cernilton and Pygeum africanum all are plant extracts with some evidence of benefit, at least when it comes to symptoms.

You are quite correct that without independent laboratory verification, there is no way to be sure of the quality and purity of dietary supplements. They are not regulated the way prescription drugs — or even foods — are.

Dr. Keith Roach regrets that he is unable to answer individual letters, but will incorporate them in the column whenever possible. Readers may email questions to ToYourGoodHealth@med.cornell.edu. © 2019 North America Synd., Inc.

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